Canada Goose | Rio Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia canada goose branta canadensis

Canada Goose
Background information
Taxonomy Birds
Status Least concern
Range Canada
United States of America
Habitat Lakes
Natural water bodies
Feathers, fur Black head
White "chinstrap
Dark grey wings
Black neck
White underparts
Black tarsus

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) is a wild goose belonging to the genus Branta, which is native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, having a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brownish-gray body. In the movie Rio, Alice and Chloe are Canadian geese in Moose Lake.


The Canada Goose was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. It belongs to the Branta genus of geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey species of the Anser genus. The specific epithet canadensis is a New Latin word meaning "from Canada". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first citation for the 'Canada Goose' dates back to 1772. The Canada Goose is also referred to as the Canadian Goose.

The Cackling Goose was originally considered to be the same species or a subspecies of the Canada Goose, but in July 2004 the American Ornithologists' Union's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature split the two into two species, making Cackling Goose into a full species with the scientific name Branta hutchinsii. The British Ornithologists' Union followed suit in June 2005.

The AOU has divided the many subspecies between the two animals. To the present species were assigned:

  • Atlantic Canada Goose, Branta canadensis canadensis
  • Interior Canada Goose, Branta canadensis interior
  • Giant Canada Goose, Branta canadensis maxima
  • Moffitt's Canada Goose, Branta canadensis moffitti
  • Vancouver Canada Goose, Branta canadensis fulva
  • Dusky Canada Goose, Branta canadensis occidentalis
  • part of "Lesser complex", Branta canadensis parvipes

The distinctions between the two geese have led to confusion and debate among ornithologists. This has been aggravated by the overlap between the small types of Canada Goose and larger types of Cackling Goose. The old "Lesser Canada Goose" was believed to be a partly hybrid population, with the birds named taverneri considered a mixture of minima, occidentalis and parvipes. In addition, it has been determined that the Barnacle Goose is a derivative of the Cackling Goose lineage, whereas the Hawaiian Goose is an insular representative of the Canada Goose.


The black head and neck with white "chinstrap" distinguish the Canada Goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the Barnacle Goose, but the latter has a black breast, and also grey, rather than brownish, body plumage. There are seven subspecies of this bird, of varying sizes and plumage details, but all are recognizable as Canada Geese. Some of the smaller races can be hard to distinguish from the newly-separated Cackling Goose.

This species ranges from 75 to 110 cm (30 to 43 in) in length and has a 127–185 cm (50–73 in) wingspan. The male usually weighs 3.2–6.5 kg (7.1–14 lb), and can be very aggressive in defending territory. The female looks virtually identical but is slightly lighter at 2.5–5.5 kg (5.5–12 lb), generally 10% smaller than its male counterpart, and has a different honk. An exceptionally large male of the race B. c. maxima, the "giant Canada goose" (which rarely exceed 8 kilograms (18 lb)), weighed 10.9 kilograms (24 lb) and had a wingspan of 2.24 metres (7.3 ft). This specimen is the largest wild goose ever recorded of any species. The life span in the wild of geese that survive to adulthood ranges 10–24 years.

Known Geese

  • Alice and Chloe
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The NēNē-NUI (Hawaiian : "great nēnē ") or WOODWALKING GOOSE (translation of Branta
hylobadistes) is an extinct species of goose that once inhabited Maui
and possibly (or closely related species) Kauaʻi , Oʻahu and perhaps Molokaʻi in the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
. It is known from a large number of subfossil bones (several thousand bones from many dozens of individuals) found in Holocene cave sediments. CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Extinction * 3 References * 4 External links EVOLUTIONThe nēnē-nui (along with the endangered nēnē and the extinct giant Hawaii goose ) evolved from the Canada goose which migrated to the islands half a million years ago and adapted to the Pacific's tropical environment. This evolution is evidenced from both genetic similarities and outward appearances. An example of this is that Canada geese have black necks, whereas the surviving nēnē are similar in that they have the sides and front of their necks buff-colored with dark furrows . Scientists have also concluded that the two major reasons for this evolution were the loss of migration as well as the change in habitat, which eventually led to the goose's change in wingspan and change in the depth of their skulls and bills
"Nēnē-nui" on:

Late Pleistocene">

Late Pleistocene">Late Pleistocene
The LATE PLEISTOCENE is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with UPPER PLEISTOCENE or TARANTIAN stage Pleistocene series rocks. The beginning of the stage is defined by the base of the Eemian interglacial phase before the final glacial episode of the Pleistocene 126,000 ± 5,000 years ago. The end of the age is defined as 11,700 years ago. The age represents the end of the Pleistocene epoch and is followed by the Holocene epoch. Much of the Late Pleistocene age was dominated by glaciation (the Wisconsin glaciation in North America and corresponding glacial periods in Eurasia ). Many megafauna became extinct over this age, a trend that continued into the Holocene. Also, human species other than modern humans died out during the Pleistocene. Humanity spread to every continent except for Antarctica during the Late Pleistocene. CONTENTS * 1 North America * 2 Notes * 3 Citations * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 Paleoclimatology stages NORTH AMERICAAccording to George Carr Frison , _ Bison occidentalis _ and _Bison antiquus _, an extinct subspecies of the smaller present-day bison, survived the Late Pleistocene period, between about 12 and 11 ka ago. Plains and Rocky Mountain First Nations depended on these bison as their major food source
"Late Pleistocene" on:


The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present. Human impacts on modern-era Earth and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including approximately synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more recently atmospheric evidence of human impacts. The International Commission on Stratigraphy Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy’s working group on the ' Anthropocene ' (coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in 2000) note this term is used to denote the present time interval in which many geologically significant conditions and processes have been profoundly altered by human activities. The 'Anthropocene' is not a formally defined geological unit
"Holocene" on:

Taxonomy (biology)">

Taxonomy (biology)" height="150" width="119.718309859">
picture info

Taxonomy (biology)">Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
"Taxonomy (biology)" on:


ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
"Animal" on:


And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
"Chordate" on:


Bird" height="150" width="224.489795918">
picture info

BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics . The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs , though a 2017 paper has put them in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida , along with the Ornithischia . True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous
period, around 120 million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages
"Bird" on:


Anserimorphae ANSERIFORMES is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae , the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks , geese , and swans . In fact, these living species are all included in the Anatidae except for the three screamers and the magpie goose . All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. The males, except for the screamers, also have a penis, a trait that has disappeared in the Neoaves . All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have subsequently become mainly terrestrial). CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Systematics * 2.2 Phylogeny * 3 Molecular studies * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Cited texts EVOLUTIONThe earliest known Anseriform is the recently discovered _ Vegavis _, which lived during the Cretaceous period. It is thought that the Anseriformes originated when the original Galloanserae (the group to which Anseriformes and Galliformes belong) split into the two main lineages. The extinct dromornithids may possibly represent early offshoots of the anseriform line, if they aren't stem -Galliformes instead, and so maybe Gastornis (if it is an Anseriform)
"Anseriformes" on:


The ANATIDAE are the biological family of birds that includes ducks , geese , and swans . The family has a cosmopolitan distribution , occurring on all the world's continents. These birds are adapted for swimming , floating on the water surface, and in some cases diving in at least shallow water. The family contains around 146 species in 43 genera . (The magpie goose is no longer considered to be part of the Anatidae, but is placed in its own family Anseranatidae.) They are generally herbivorous, and are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations . A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, and many others are hunted for food and recreation. Five species have become extinct since 1600, and many more are threatened with extinction . Landing mallard drake CONTENTS * 1 Description and ecology * 2 Breeding * 3 Relationship with humans * 4 Systematics * 5 Genera * 5.1 Prehistoric species * 5.2 Fossil Anatidae * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links DESCRIPTION AND ECOLOGYThe ducks, geese, and swans are small- to large-sized birds with a broad and elongated general body plan. Diving species vary from this in being rounder. Extant species range in size from the cotton pygmy goose , at as little as 26.5 cm (10.5 in) and 164 g (5.8 oz), to the trumpeter swan , at as much as 183 cm (6 ft) and 17.2 kg (38 lb)
"Anatidae" on:


_ Branta bernicla _ _ Branta canadensis _ _ Branta hutchinsii _ _ Branta leucopsis _ _ Branta ruficollis _ _ Branta sandvicensis _ and see text SYNONYMS _Nesochen_ Salvadori , 1895 The BLACK GEESE of the genus _BRANTA_ are waterfowl belonging to the true geese and swans subfamily Anserinae . They occur in the northern coastal regions of the Palearctic and all over North America , migrating to more southernly coasts in winter, and as resident birds in the Hawaiian Islands . Alone in the Southern Hemisphere , a self-sustaining feral population derived from introduced Canada geese is also found in New Zealand . The scientific name _Branta_ is a Latinised form of Old Norse _Brandgás_, "burnt (black) goose). The black geese derive their vernacular name for the prominent areas of black coloration found in all species. They can be distinguished from all other true geese by their legs and feet, which are black or very dark grey. Furthermore, they have black bills and large areas of black on the head and neck, with white (ochre in one species) markings that can be used to tell apart most species. As with most geese, their undertail and uppertail coverts are white. They are also on average smaller than other geese, though some very large taxa are known, which rival the swan goose and the black-necked swan in size
"Branta" on:

Binomial Nomenclature">

Binomial Nomenclature">Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
"Binomial Nomenclature" on:

Storrs L. Olson">

Storrs L. Olson">Storrs L. Olson
STORRS LOVEJOY OLSON (born April 3, 1944) is an American biologist and ornithologist who spent his career the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
, retiring in 2008. One of the world's foremost avian paleontologists , he is best known for his studies of fossil and subfossil birds on islands such as Ascension , St. Helena
St. Helena
and Hawaii
. His early higher education took place at Florida State University and the University of Florida , and his doctoral studies at Johns Hopkins University . He has been married to fellow paleornithologist Helen F. James . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career and graduate education * 3 Personal life * 4 Honors * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONOlson was born April 4, 1944 in Chicago, Illinois . His father was physical oceanographer Franklyn C.W. Olson. He was named after his maternal conservationist grandfather P.S. Lovejoy. Franklyn worked at the University of Ohio 's Stone Laboratory on Gibraltar Island
Gibraltar Island
. In these lacustrine surroundings, Storrs developed an interest in fishes . In 1950, Olson's family moved to Tallahassee, Florida when Franklyn took a job at Florida State University . Young Olson's interests shifted to ornithology at age 12
"Storrs L. Olson" on:

Helen F. James">

Helen F. James">Helen F. James
HELEN FRANCES JAMES (born May 22, 1956) is an American paleontologist and paleornithologist who has published extensively on the fossil birds of the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
. She is the curator in charge of birds , in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Education * 3 Career * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEJames was born in a U.S. Army hospital in Hot Springs, Arkansas , to two ecologists . She was brought up on a farm at the base of Kessler Mountain near Fayetteville , in the Arkansas Ozarks . At age eight, her family moved up slope to a custom-built house in the woods, where she developed an interest in natural history and archaeology . James' parents encouraged an appreciation for nature in her and her sisters, taking them on trips within the Ozarks and to the American southwest and Mexico
. James found some Amerindian artifacts on these excursions, leading her to join the Northwest Arkansas Archaeological Association at age twelve. James' father accepted a one-year Fulbright Fellowship and the family moved to Cape Coast, Ghana . EDUCATIONOn returning from Ghana, at the age of 16, James attended the University of Arkansas , graduating in 1977 after studying archaeology and biological anthropology
"Helen F. James" on:

Hawaiian Language">

Hawaiian Language">Hawaiian Language
The HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE (Hawaiian: _ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi_, pronounced ) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi , the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English , is an official language of the State of Hawaii . King Kamehameha III established the first Hawaiian-language constitution in 1839 and 1840. For various reasons, including territorial legislation establishing English as the official language in schools, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the 1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on six of seven inhabited islands. In 2001, native speakers of Hawaiian amounted to under 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists were unsure that Hawaiian and other endangered languages would survive. Nevertheless, from around 1949 to the present day, there has been a gradual increase in attention to and promotion of the language. Public Hawaiian-language immersion preschools called Pūnana Leo were started in 1984; other immersion schools followed soon after that. The first students to start in immersion preschool have now graduated from college and many are fluent Hawaiian speakers. The federal government has acknowledged this development
"Hawaiian Language" on:


Nēnē" height="150" width="200">
picture info

The NENE ( Branta
sandvicensis), also known as NēNē and HAWAIIAN GOOSE, is a species of goose endemic to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
. The official bird of the state of Hawaiʻi , the nene is exclusively found in the wild on the islands of Oahu
, Maui
, Kauaʻi , Molokai
, and Hawaiʻi . The Hawaiian name nēnē comes from its soft call. The specific name sandvicensis refers to the Sandwich Islands, an old name for the Hawaiian Islands. It is thought that the nene evolved from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), which most likely arrived on the Hawaiian islands about 500,000 years ago, shortly after the island of Hawaiʻi was formed. This ancestor is the progenitor of the nene as well as the prehistoric Giant Hawaiʻi goose and nēnē-nui ( Branta
hylobadistes). The nēnē-nui was larger than the nene, varied from flightless to flighted depending on the individual, and inhabited the island of Maui . Similar fossil geese found on Oʻahu
and Kauaʻi may be of the same species. The Giant Hawaiʻi goose was restricted to the island of Hawaiʻi and measured 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length with a mass of 8.6 kg (19 lb), making it more than four times larger than the nene
"Nēnē" on:


Distant geese honking (help ·info ) SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Subfamily: Anserinae Tribe: ANSERINI GENERA _Anser _ _ Branta _ Chen and see text GEESE are waterfowl belonging to the tribe ANSERINI of the family Anatidae . This tribe comprises the genera _Anser _ (the grey geese), _ Branta _ (the black geese) and _Chen _ (the white geese). Some other birds, mostly related to the shelducks , have "goose" as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae are swans , most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks , which are smaller. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 True geese and their relatives * 3 Other birds called "geese" * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY Canada goose gosling The word "goose" is a direct descendent of Proto-Indo-European root, *_ghans-_. In Germanic languages , the root gave Old English _gōs_ with the plural _gēs_ and _gandres_ (becoming Modern English goose, geese, gander, and gosling, respectively), Frisian _goes_, _gies_ and _guoske_, New High German _Gans_, _Gänse_, and _Ganter_, and Old Norse _gās_
"Goose" on:

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The Agonistic Behavior of the Canada Goose (Branta Canadensis Canadensis)

The Agonistic Behavior of the Canada Goose (Branta Canadensis Canadensis) THE AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE CANADA GOOSE (BRANTA CANADENSIS CANADENSIS) I. ATTACK BEHAVIOR by ROBERT B. KLOPMAN 1) 2) (Sub-department of Animal Behaviour, Cambridge University, U.K.) (With 14 Figures) (Rec. 7-VIII-1967) 1) Present address: 3863 Douglas Road, Miami, Florida, U.S.A. 2) It gives me great pleasure to thank Professor W. H. THORPE, F. R. S., for making this study possible in the first instance. His critical advice and generous help with many problems are appreciated. I am deeply indebted to Dr R. A. HINDE for his constant en- couragement and valuable critical advice in all stages of the work, including the prepa- ration of this paper. Mr D. V. LINDLEY, Statistical Laboratory, Cambridge provided invaluable counsel. Special thanks are given Professor JAMES GRAY for the privilege of working at the Zoological Laboratories. Dr H. PHILLIP ZEIGLER read the manuscript and made many suggestions for its improvement. I am pleased also to acknowledge the valu- able critical advice of Dr R. J. ANDREW. A debt of gratitude is owed Dr D. F. POULSON, Chairman of the Biology Department, Yale University for providing many facilities dur- ing the preparation of the manuscript. The members of the field station staff at Behaviour Brill
THE AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE CANADA GOOSE (BRANTA CANADENSIS CANADENSIS) I. ATTACK BEHAVIOR by ROBERT B. KLOPMAN 1) 2) (Sub-department of Animal Behaviour, Cambridge University, U.K.) (With 14 Figures) (Rec. 7-VIII-1967) 1) Present address: 3863 Douglas Road, Miami, Florida, U.S.A. 2) It gives me great pleasure to thank Professor W. H. THORPE, F. R. S., for making this study possible in the first instance. His critical advice and generous help with many problems are appreciated. I am deeply indebted to Dr R. A. HINDE for his constant en- couragement and valuable critical advice in all stages of the work, including the prepa- ration of this paper. Mr D. V. LINDLEY, Statistical Laboratory, Cambridge provided invaluable counsel. Special thanks are given Professor JAMES GRAY for the privilege of working at the Zoological Laboratories. Dr H. PHILLIP ZEIGLER read the manuscript and made many suggestions for its improvement. I am pleased also to acknowledge the valu- able critical advice of Dr R. J. ANDREW. A debt of gratitude is owed Dr D. F. POULSON, Chairman of the Biology Department, Yale University for providing many facilities dur- ing the preparation of the manuscript. The members of the field station staff at Madingley (Miss E. M. BARRAUD, Mr A. E. WILSON and Mr D. F. SAINT) deserve profuse thanks for their help in animal care and so many other kindnesses. Mr PETER SCOTT, Director, The Wildfowl Trust contributed valuable experimental animals, and gave indispensable advice concerning disease control and its prevention. Mr ALAN VAN SANT'S fine drawings done from photographs taken by the author should be cited. Finally, I wish to thank Mr KEN KLOSE for his admirable German summary. This research was supported by a predoctoral National Institutes of Health Research Fellowship, MF- 8219.
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