Canada Goose Expedition Down Parka - Men's | Backcountry.com canada goose special edition

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Canada Goose Expedition Down Parka - Men's

$995.00

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Canada Goose

Men's Outerwear   XS S M L XL XXL 3XL EU Size 42 46 48 52 56 60 64 Chest

34 - 35in

(86 - 89cm)

36 - 37in

(91 - 94cm)

38 - 40in

(97 - 102cm)

41 - 43in

(104 - 109cm)

44 - 46in

(112 - 117cm)

47 - 51in

(119 - 130cm)

52 - 56in

(132 - 142cm)

Waist

27 - 28in

(69 - 71cm)

29 - 30in

(74 - 76cm)

31 - 33in

(79 - 84cm)

34 - 36in

(86 - 91cm)

37 - 39in

(94 - 99cm)

40 - 44in

(102 - 112cm)

45 - 49in

(114 - 124cm)

Hip

34 - 35in

(86 - 89cm)

36 - 37in

(91 - 94cm)

38 - 40in

(97 - 102cm)

41 - 43in

(104 - 109cm)

44 - 46in

(112 - 117cm)

47 - 51in

(119 - 130cm)

52 - 56in

(132 - 142cm)

How to Measure: For best results, take measurements over your underwear. Chest: Measure under your arms, around the fullest part of your chest. Waist: Measure around your natural waistline, keeping the tape a bit loose. Hip: Stand with feet together and measure around the fullest part of the hip.

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    45 Reviews

    Details

    Take it to the extreme.

    Built for the coldest conditions found on planet Earth, the Canada Goose Men's Expedition Down Parka is designed to keep you comfortably warm in temperatures of -25F and below. Over 20 years of use by the National Science Foundation at Antarctica's McMurdo Station research facility has proven that this jacket has what it take to handle the most extreme weather you'll ever encounter.

    A hearty helping of high-loft duck down insulation keeps out cold that would cause frostbite in mere minutes. Arctic Tech fabric seals out frigid blasts of cold air and rapidly-accumulating snow, and it's extremely tough to withstand the rigors of expeditions to the poles. An insulated windguard prevents wind from coming in through the zipper, and the adjustable hood features adjustable bracing wire so it doesn't blow off or block your vision when the wind is whipping. An elasticized snow skirt keeps snow out when you're trudging through deep winddrifts, and multiple pockets keep small necessities close at hand.

    Learn more

    Tech Specs

    Material[shell] Arctic-Tech nylon, [lining] nylonInsulation625-fill duck downFitrelaxedLengthmid-thighHoodyes, down-insulatedPockets[external] 2 chest, 4 hand warmer, 2 full-bellow snow, 1 sleeve pocket, [internal] 1 drop-in, 1 zippered securityRecommended Useextreme cold-weather, expeditionsManufacturer WarrantylifetimeFur Informationcoyote, natural, Canada origin, CA37818Learn more

    Tech Specs

    What do you think about this product? Have questions about this product? EverythingWrite a ReviewAsk a QuestionShare a PhotoShare a Video View AllReviewsPhotosVideosRuns SmallTrue to SizeRuns LargeAll Fit Info March 21, 2017

    Peta

    Bought a coat to piss off peta, xbvequpc. Canadese Goose Jacketended up being the warmest and most comfortable coat I have or probably will ever own, highly impressed.

    North Martin North Martin Leave a comment... January 12, 2017

    Sizing

    Im 5'8" 170lbs, bought a size M. Turned out too big. Definitely need to pick a size smaller when considering to buy this jacket

    Nikhil V. Nikhil V. Leave a comment... Eric Watford Eric Watford Gearhead January 17, 2017

    Thanks for the review Nikhil! Super helpful to get this feedback out to the community.

    Leave a comment...

    review flagged as Political. Click here to view.

    May 4, 2016

    LOVE IT but Check the size

    I love this parka, but be aware that the size runs big. I had to return the Expediton because the small was too big for me. I needed the XS size, which is not a surprise. I'm 5'5

    Ethan Anderson A. Ethan Anderson A. Leave a comment... Karen K. Karen K. January 1, 2017

    How to buy XS size cause i can not find the XS in the website -

    Leave a comment... January 25, 2016

    Very, very warm

    I wore this parka for about 3 hours at -115 F at the South Pole. This is a coat for the COLDEST conditions and is sized to have multiple layers under it. It is much more coat than most people will need and too warm for most activities at ordinary temperatures. I now have one at home in Minnesota. I wear it at -10 or -20 with a windchill of -30 and a light shirt underneath.

    John R. John R. Leave a comment... October 22, 2015

    Goose People

    Justin Jaspersen Justin Jaspersen Leave a comment... August 31, 2015

    Canada Goose Expedition Down Parka

    Adam Saucedo Adam Saucedo Gearhead Leave a comment...

    review flagged as Does this horrible company really need to slaughter the coyote for it's fur ruff at the hood so the privileged can wear it?!. Click here to view.

    February 26, 2015

    You qian reng xing

    I bought this jack for my grandpa ~ he always wear size Xl in China but i knew the amercian size is bigger that chinese one , so i bought this jack on size M unforunte still a little be bigger ~ bad luck far away for return ... So i just bought a other one ~ YOu qiang ren xing we call this situation !b

    568p439559 568p439559 Leave a comment...

    review flagged as Does this horrible company really need to slaughter the coyote for it's fur ruff at the hood so the privileged can wear it?!. Click here to view.

    January 12, 2015

    Sizing

    I ordered a Medium size based on the sizing chart (after reading the many reviews and responses regarding sizing issues) ............. based on my experience ................ you can use the "sizing chart" ........... HOWEVER ORDER ONE SIZE SMALLER. So now I will have to send back the medium and wait for the small as I freeze in Chicago ................. anxiously waiting to try whether a small actually fits properly or whether it will take another reorder to properly fit..............currently not pleased with the process of relying on the sizing chart when so many messages have been posted that the product "runs large" Other than the sizing issue I am very pleased with the quality and warmth of the jacket.

    Daniel K. Daniel K. Leave a comment... Ethan Anderson A. Ethan Anderson A. May 4, 2016

    Are you reviewing Backcountry or the jacket?

    Leave a comment... January 3, 2015

    heres the deal about sizing

    after plenty of tries and research and owning 5 goose jackets ive come up with a sizing chart that could help..i'm 5'11 170 i wear medium in clothing for a good fit the loose fitting like exped-resolute should downsize 2 sizes (xs for me) for the regular fit like chilliwack downsize 1 ( small for me) for the slim fit like banff-langford-chateau true to size (medium for me) if you want to multi layer or like a loose fit then just upgrade 1 size ex small for exped-resolute medium for chilli and large for banff-langford-chateau hope this will help!

    max105635851-0 max105635851-0 Leave a comment... December 28, 2014

    Best Jacket Ever

    Love it, period !!!

    Michael T. Michael T. Leave a comment... December 5, 2014

    6', 205#, XL too big

    I purchased the XL Expedition and it is huge. I normally wear an XL in everything, and yet most of my jackets still fit tight, as I have a big chest. If I pull this jacket together at the front and continue pulling it across me (past zipping it), it overlaps by about 1 foot past the zipper. I sent it back and I am awaiting receipt of a Large. After reading other reviews, I'm scared that I may find that the Large is also too big. I really hope not, but I just couldn't imagine having to go down in size further. I guess I'll find out soon, as they received the one I sent back this morning. I'm really looking forward to getting it, as I can't stand the cold temperatures, and this is one incredibly warm jacket. I did stand in my driveway for well over an hour at less than 10 degrees just to test it out the night I received it, and there wasn't even a hint that it was cold out. I only wore a short sleeve t-shirt to try it out. Actually, when I took it off, I felt the inside of the jacket and the inside of it felt like it just came out of the dryer. I think it will be well worth the $'s once I have one that fits properly.

    David K. David K. Leave a comment... November 13, 2014

    6'1", 210# = size small (seriously)

    This is turning out to be one of the top 5 purchases I've ever made. It's an amazing product, but there are plenty of reviews about that. I really struggled with size, and here's how it netted out for me. I live in UT so I was able to go to the Backcountry warehouse and try on both the large and the medium so I could make sure of fit. I was blown away that the medium was too big. It would have been ok if I was planning to layer quite a bit under the coat, but that's just not necessary. I ended up ordering the small (they didn't have it in the UT warehouse) and it fits great. I'm 6'1" tall with a 44" chest (I wear a 44 regular suit coat) and I weight approx 210#. Again, the small fits great.

    John M. John M. Leave a comment... October 14, 2014

    Excellent quality!huge size!

    I love it!but it is too big.

    jackie.sunzheng jackie.sunzheng Leave a comment... October 10, 2014

    Another size review..

    I'm sending my second try of this coat back and am going with a different model. The quality is excellent, no issues with workmanship, but this coat is HUGE. I'm 6'1'' 194lbs., got the large originally, and it swallowed me. Sent it back got the Medium and while it fit in arm length, it's still just a mammoth of a coat. Bottom line the coat is very bulky, even with the right size, you will look like Cartman... I live in Fairbanks, AK and will definitely use the warmth, I just think there may be another model that suits me better. Also, for all the Alaska people.. no return shipping help on any gear from Backcountry. The first coat I returned cost $30. This one will probably be the same.. Good luck! I rated it 4 stars because this is the coat for somebody, no doubt. Just not for me.

    zach zach Leave a comment... October 1, 2014

    2015 CANADA GOOSE EXPEDITION PARKA

    Backcountry Video Backcountry Video Leave a comment... wgarner wgarner February 7, 2015

    What song is in this video? It's incredible!

    Leave a comment... April 8, 2015

    Does anyone know what the song is in this video?

    Leave a comment... April 8, 2015

    Does anyone know what the song is in this video?

    Leave a comment... April 8, 2015

    Does anyone know what the song is in this video?

    Leave a comment... September 29, 2014

    Size Matters

    Ordered this coat online and was so excited to receive it. The quality is exceptional and the order arrived very promptly. Unfortunately however, I had a problem with the size. I am a big guy and normally purchase coats that are XXL. Per advise from previous reviews, I decided on the XL since it sounded like the jackets run large. When I went to try on this beautiful coat I immediately enjoyed the soft down interior and comfortable cuffs. Unfortunately, this jacket was HUGE. I would have to probably try size L --Maybe even M-- next time. I

    Steven W. Steven W. Leave a comment... ash105657190-0 ash105657190-0 January 8, 2015

    Steve, I've been trying to find a local store that has the sizes I wear in stock but to no avail. I'm going to have to buy online. Like you, I'm a big guy, 6', 275lbs, 50-52 chest broad shoulders and big arms. I generally buy my coats in XXL and while they fit, they are usually tight across the back and snug around the arms, so it makes layering a bit tough. So, even an XL was too large for you? How is the fit in the arms? Across the back?

    Leave a comment... March 17, 2014

    Warm Coat for the Bitter Cold

    This coat is excellent for extreme cold and very low wind chills. I've had the coat for a year and live in Upstate New York. The temperatures have been at zero and below, with the added bonus of 20 below wind chills. The coat works very well and is sized for layering (i.e. underwear, shirt, sweater, fleece, then the coat). The hood is excellent and the Velcro closures work well.

    Joseph L. Joseph L. Leave a comment... Unanswered Question July 6, 2016

    I'm 5'11" about 204lbs. I usually wear XL.What size should i get?

    WangZhen WangZhen Have an Answer? Unanswered Question July 2, 2016

    Hi, I'm 5'11" about 204lbs. I usually wear XL. Would that be a good size?

    WangZhen WangZhen Have an Answer?

    question flagged as irrelevant. Click here to view.

    January 9, 2016

    Hi, I'm 6'3 about 260. I usually wear XXL. Would that be a good size?

    Devin Devin Have an Answer? Bleep Bloop Bleep Bloop January 10, 2016

    Devin, it will depend somewhat on the layers you plan to wear underneath, but I would definitely give the XXL a shot first. Let me know if I can help with anything else!

    Leave a comment... December 21, 2015

    5'8''---160 lbs---31" waist ----what size should i get?

    Jon Jon Have an Answer? Dan Gates Dan Gates Gearhead December 21, 2015

    Hey Jon, I am about the same size and would go for a small in this jacket. You could go up to a medium if you are planning on wearing some bulky layers underneath, but it will be pretty large on you. This jacket is cut large and fits big. Let me know if you have other questions.

    Leave a comment... September 22, 2015

    I am a student in Switzerland. I wish to purchase a Canada Goose Expedition in white color, but I see on the list that you are out of white color for L size. I would like to know if you ship the product to Switzerland and are there any ways(such as other web page, Getting more stocks) to get White color of L size.

    Jiho Jang Jiho Jang Have an Answer? Emily Jenson Emily Jenson Gearhead September 24, 2015

    Jiho, We do ship to Switzerland, but we cannot ship Canada Goose to Switzerland. Some brands restrict us from selling their products internationally and, unfortunately, Canada Goose is one of them. Email me directly, if you have any other questions. Emily Jenson Expert Gearhead ejenson@backcountry.com 801.746.7587

    Leave a comment... May 22, 2015

    my boyfriend is 6' tall, and 135lbs, he is super skinny! What size do you think I should get for him? WY

    weiyi zhang weiyi zhang Have an Answer? Kyle Livingston Kyle Livingston Gearhead November 25, 2015

    Hey Weiyi, I would recommed going with the Medium in the Expedition Down Parka but he might better suited with one of the slim fit Canada Goose Parkas like the Langford (Item # CDG3340) or the Chateau (Item # CDG0101). Feel free to contact me directly with any more questions about Canada Goose. Kyle - Expert Gearhead

    Leave a comment... Unanswered Question February 12, 2014

    I need to get two Expedition jackets (one...

    I need to get two Expedition jackets (one Men's S, one Women's XXS) in Sunset Orange. Is it possible for you to special-order them for me? There isn't a broad range of colors available here...

    Simon Cousins Simon Cousins Have an Answer? Unanswered Question February 5, 2014

    Hello, I hope to buy a Canada Goose ...

    Hello, I hope to buy a Canada Goose Jacket. I normally use XLarge, however, the info on the waist indicates 94-97 cm. I do not think this is extra large. Which size should I choose? have never used any other than XR. Is possible that Canada Goose Jackets are bigger or slim such as Langford for example? Thanks!

    Ed Ed Have an Answer? January 2, 2014

    where are these jackets made?

    where are these jackets made?

    Robert W. Robert W. Have an Answer? Best Answer Joe Joe January 3, 2014

    The jackets are made in Canada. The company's gloves and mitts are made in China.

    Leave a comment... December 30, 2013

    Hi is the fur collar detachable?

    Hi is the fur collar detachable?

    Kaye Kaye Have an Answer? Best Answer Mike D Hilverda Mike D Hilverda December 30, 2013

    Kaye, Unfortunately the Coyote fur ruff hood is not removable.

    Leave a comment... Richard F. Richard F. November 28, 2014

    The polar bear version has that capacity

    Leave a comment... Unanswered Question December 28, 2013

    Why does Canada Goose fill their jackets...

    Why does Canada Goose fill their jackets with duck down? I'd expect goose down at this price point.

    Robert B. Robert B. Have an Answer? December 25, 2013

    What degree of coldness can this handle?

    What degree of coldness can this handle?

    Rusty Piranha Rusty Piranha Have an Answer? Best Answer Mike D Hilverda Mike D Hilverda December 26, 2013

    Chris, The Canada Goose Expedition Down Parka is intended to keep you safe in painfully cold temps (Field tested for coldest places on Earth). Tha coat does not have an official temp rating like a sleeping bag might, however it has been tested at Arctic temps well below -30C. This is one of Canada Goose's warmest parkas, according to their TEI rating system it tops out at a TEI5. You can read more about the TEI rating system on their website here: http://www.canada-goose.com/story#story-tei

    Leave a comment... Rusty Piranha Rusty Piranha December 26, 2013

    THANKS!

    Leave a comment... December 14, 2013

    hey, I am 6'1", and am about 178-80lbs...

    hey, I am 6'1", and am about 178-80lbs soaking wet. I always need to find medium or large TALL shirts for my wide shoulders and knuckle dragging long arms....okay an exaggeration, but I have had to resort to bespoke shirts being small and long, instead of 'big and tall'. My arms need shirts in the 35-6 in range to fit me. And I am a 40 chest size. Any parkas for a guy more horizontally challenged than vertically so?

    long lean but not mean long lean but not mean Have an Answer? Best Answer Chris Huntley Chris Huntley December 17, 2013

    canada goose recommends sizing one size down for their relaxed fit jackets. i couldn't find the sleeve length for you, but the jackets is designed to hit mid thigh, so the waist length shouldn't be a problem for you. the center back length is 35 inches, so you can compare that against your own measurement.

    Leave a comment... Rusty Piranha Rusty Piranha December 25, 2013

    How cold can you go with this?

    Leave a comment... December 8, 2013

    Is the hood on the men's Expedition Down...


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    Canada

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Canada (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 60°N 95°W  /  60°N 95°W  / 60; -95

    Canada Flag Motto:  A Mari Usque Ad Mare    (Latin)
    (English: "From Sea to Sea") Anthem: "O Canada"
    Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"
    [1] Capital Ottawa
    45°24′N 75°40′W  /  45.400°N 75.667°W  / 45.400; -75.667 Largest city Toronto Official languages Ethnic groups Ethnic demography Religion List of religions Demonym Canadian Government Federal parliamentary
    constitutional monarchy [4] • Monarch Elizabeth II •  Governor General Julie Payette • Prime Minister Justin Trudeau • Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin Legislature Parliament • Upper house Senate • Lower house House of Commons Independence  from the United Kingdom • Confederation July 1, 1867 • Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 • Canadian Citizenship Act January 1, 1947 • Patriation April 17, 1982 Area • Total area 9,984,670 km 2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd) • Water (%) 8.92 • Total land area 9,093,507 km 2 (3,511,023 sq mi) Population • 2016 census 35,151,728 [5] (38th) • Density 3.92/km 2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th) GDP  (PPP) 2016 estimate • Total $1.672 trillion [6] (15th) • Per capita $46,199 [6] (20th) GDP  (nominal) 2016 estimate • Total $1.529 trillion [7] (10th) • Per capita $40,409 [6] (15th) Gini  (2012) 31.6 [8]
    medium  · 20th [9] HDI  (2015)  0.920 [10]
    very high  · 10th Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD) Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8) • Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7) Date format yyyy-mm-dd (AD) [11] Drives on the right Calling code +1 ISO 3166 code CA Internet TLD .ca

    Canada ( / ˈ k æ n ə d ə /  (   listen ) ; French:  [kanadɑ] ) is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.

    Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, the British and French established colonies, the first being the colony of Canada established by France in 1535. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, British North America gained and lost territory until, by the late 18th century, it controlled most of what comprises Canada today. On July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were federated to form the semi-autonomous federal Dominion named Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming contemporary Canada. In 1931, Canada achieved near-total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931 , except for the power to amend its constitution. With the Constitution Act of 1982, Canada took over that authority (as the conclusion of Patriation).

    Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

    Canada is a developed country and has the fifteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the tenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

    Contents

    Etymology

    Main article: Name of Canada

    While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada , the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata , meaning "village" or "settlement". [12] In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. [13] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but to the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); [13] by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada . [13]

    From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. [14] In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. [15] Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. [16] The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act , which refers only to Canada . Later that year, the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day. [17] The term Dominion is also used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion . [18]

    History

    Main article: History of Canada See also: Timeline of Canadian history and List of years in Canada Further information: Historiography of Canada

    Indigenous peoples

    Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact

    Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, [19] the latter being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers. [19] The term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. [20]

    The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge [21] and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. [22] [23] [24] [25] The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. [26] The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks. [27] [28] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations. [29]

    The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000 [30] and two million, [31] with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. [32] As a consequence of European colonization, the population of Canada's indigenous peoples declined by forty to eighty percent, and several First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared. [33] The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of European diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox to which they had no natural immunity, [30] [34] conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the loss of indigenous lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of several nations' self-sufficiency. [35] [36]

    Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful. [37] First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade. [38] The Crown and indigenous peoples began interactions during the European colonization period, though the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers. [39] However, from the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged indigenous peoples to assimilate into their own culture. [40] These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations. [41] A period of redress is underway, which started with the appointment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada by the Government of Canada. [42]

    European colonization

    The first known attempt at European colonization began when Norsemen settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 AD. [43] No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of King Henry VII of England. [44] [45] Then Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th century. [46] In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory New France in the name of King Francis I. [47] In general the settlements appear to have been short-lived, possibly due to the similarity of outputs producible in Scandinavia and northern Canada and the problems of navigating trade routes at that time. [48]

    In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony. [49] French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608). [50] Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. [51] The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade. [52]

    Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec.

    The English established additional settlements in Newfoundland, beginning in 1610 [53] and the Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after. [46] A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. [54] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, and Canada and most of New France came under British rule in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. [55]

    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. [17] St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. [56] To avert conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. [57] It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. The Proclamation and the Quebec Act angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution. [17]

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized American independence and ceded British North American territories south of the Great Lakes to the new United States. [58] New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. [59] To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly. [60]

    The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. Peace came in 1815; no boundaries were changed. Immigration resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815–50. [61] New arrivals included refugees escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances. [62] Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891. [30]

    The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. [63] The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture. [17] The Act of Union merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America by 1849. [64] The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). [65]

    Confederation and expansion

    An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867

    Following several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. [66] [67] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. [68] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. [69]

    To open the West to European immigration, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act , and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. [70] [71] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905. [69]

    Early 20th century

    Canadian soldiers and a Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917

    Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I. [72] Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war. [73] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded. [74] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers. [75] The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. [75] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, [73] and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence. [4]

    Canadian crew of a Sherman tank, south of Vaucelles, France, during the Battle of Normandy in June 1944

    The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country. [76] In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s. [77] On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada's independence. [73]

    The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded. [78] Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. [73] Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. [79] The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. [73] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy. [80]

    Contemporary era

    At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949.

    The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. [81] After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province. [82]

    Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, [83] the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, [84] and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. [85] Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. [86]

    Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the Canada Act , the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [87] [88] [89] Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country, although the Queen retained her role as monarch of Canada. [90] [91] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government. [92]

    At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement. [93] The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 [94] and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. [95] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. [96] [97] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. [98] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation. [95]

    In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; [99] the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; [100] and the Oka Crisis of 1990, [101] the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and indigenous groups. [102] Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia. [103]

    Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. [104] In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war, [105] and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s. [106]

    Geography and climate

    Main articles: Geography of Canada and Climate of Canada Köppen climate types of Canada

    Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. [107] Greenland is to the northeast. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. [108]

    Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. [109] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi); [110] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi). [111]

    Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. [112] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes (563 greater than 100 km 2 (39 sq mi)), more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. [113] [114] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains. [115]

    Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. [116] The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. [117] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River. [118]

    Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. [119] In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). [120]

    Government and politics

    Main articles: Government of Canada and Politics of Canada Queen Elizabeth II
    Monarch Julie Payette
    Governor General Justin Trudeau
    Prime Minister

    Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. [121] [122] [123] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada (at present Julie Payette), carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada. [124] [125]

    The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of governance is limited. [123] [126] [127] In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at present Justin Trudeau), [128] the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice. [126] To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. [129] The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. [126] The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. [130]

    Parliament Hill in Canada's capital city, Ottawa

    Each of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister, or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House. [131] [132] Constitutionally, an election may be held no more than five years after the preceding election, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a fixed election date in October. The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75. [133] Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2015 election: the Liberal Party of Canada who currently form the government, the Conservative Party of Canada who are the Official Opposition, the New Democratic Party, the Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party of Canada. [134]

    The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament Hill

    Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons. [127] Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces. [135] The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts. [136]

    The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country. In addition, the Minister of Finance and Minister of Industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development. [137] The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes. [138] The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint. [139]

    Law

    Main article: Law of Canada

    The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. [140] The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. [141] The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to the UK, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [142] The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years. [143]

    The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered Treaties of 1871–1921

    The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples. [144] Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between the indigenous and the reigning Monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921. [145] These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Development. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982. [144] These rights may include provision of services, such as health care, and exemption from taxation. [146] The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord. [144]

    The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill

    Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since 2000 by the Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin (the first female Chief Justice). [147] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions. [148]

    Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. [149] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces. [150] However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police. [151]

    Foreign relations and military

    Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada and Military history of Canada See also: Canada–United States relations The Canadian Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, May 1945

    Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. [152] Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions. [153] Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image. [154] The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises. [155]

    Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). [152] Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. [156] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976. [157] Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001. [158] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). [159]

    Prime Minister Trudeau and President Trump meet in Washington, February 2017.

    Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. [160] [161] Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba since, and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. [162] Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie. [163] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II. [79]

    Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. [164] Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. [165] [166] During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union. [167]

    During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. [168] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. [169] Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989, [73] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair. [170]

    Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province in Afghanistan, pictured, fought with Dutch soldiers against Afghan insurgents.

    In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. [171] In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them. [172] In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925. [173]

    The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 reserve personnel. [174] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately C$19 billion, or around 1% of the country's GDP. [175] [176] Following the 2016 Defence Policy Review, the Canadian government announced a 70% increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. The Canadian Forces will acquire 88 fighter planes and 15 naval surface combatants, the latter as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. Canada's total military expenditure is expected to reach C$32.7 billion by 2027. [177]

    Provinces and territories

    Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada See also: Canadian federalism

    Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada ( Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. [178] Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. [179]

    A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.

    Economy

    Main articles: Economy of Canada and Economic history of Canada

    Canada is the world's tenth-largest economy as of 2016 [update] , with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.52 trillion. [7] It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. [180] [181] Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on The Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom, [182] and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. [183] The country's average household disposable income per capita is over US$23,900, higher than the OECD average. [184] Furthermore, the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion as of 2015 [update] . [185]

    Tree-map of Canada's goods exports in 2014 [186]

    In 2014, Canada's exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $524 billion, of which approximately $351 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union, and $35 billion from China. [187] The country's 2014 trade surplus totalled C$5.1 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008. [188] [189]

    Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. [190] Like many other developed countries, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce. [191] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components. [192]

    Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. [193] Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13% share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. [194] Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. [195] Canada's Ministry of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead. [196] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries. [197]

    Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. [198] The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. [199] In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA). [200] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment. [201] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994. [195]

    Science and technology

    Main articles: Science and technology in Canada and Telecommunications in Canada The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116 mission in 2006

    In 2015, Canada spent approximately C$31.6 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. [202] As of 2015 [update] , the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, [203] [204] and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. [205] It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. [206] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population. [207]

    The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. [208] Canada was the third country to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch. [209] Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. [210] Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST. [211] Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961. [212] In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada's first male astronaut, followed by Canada's second and first female astronaut Roberta Bondar in 1992. [213]

    Demographics

    Main article: Demographics of Canada The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada, spanning approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 miles). [214]

    The 2016 Canadian census enumerated a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. [215] [216] Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase. [217] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. [218] The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. [219] Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, [220] driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification. [221] [222] The Canadian public as-well as the major political parties support the current level of immigration. [221] [223] [224] In 2014, a total of 260,400 immigrants were admitted to Canada. [225] The Canadian government anticipated between 280,000 and 305,000 new permanent residents in the following years. [226] a similar number of immigrants as in recent years. [227] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. [228] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, [229] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements. [230]

    Canada's population density, at 3.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.6/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. [231] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found south of the 55th parallel north. [232] About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the contiguous United States border. [233] The most densely populated part of the country, accounting for nearly 50 percent, is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. [214] [232] An additional 30 percent live along the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. [234]

    In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years; [235] by 2011, it had risen to approximately 39.9 years. [236] As of 2013 [update] , the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years. [237] The majority of Canadians (69.9%) live in family households, 26.8% report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 3.7%. [238] The average size of a household in 2006 was 2.5 people. [238]

    Largest census metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2016 Census) CMA Province Population CMA Province Population Toronto Ontario 5,928,040 London Ontario 494,069 Montreal Quebec 4,098,927 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 406,074 Vancouver British Columbia 2,463,431 Halifax Nova Scotia 403,390 Calgary Alberta 1,392,609 Oshawa Ontario 379,848 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,323,783 Victoria British Columbia 367,770 Edmonton Alberta 1,321,426 Windsor Ontario 329,144 Quebec Quebec 800,296 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 295,095 Winnipeg Manitoba 778,489 Regina Saskatchewan 236,481 Hamilton Ontario 747,545 Sherbrooke Quebec 212,105 Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 523,894 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 205,955

    Education

    Main article: Education in Canada

    According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world; [239] the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. [239] Canada spends about 5.3% of its GDP on education. [240] The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 20 000 USD per student). [241] As of 2014 [update] , 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. [184]

    Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada. [242] Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision. [243] The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, [244] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. [107] In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent. [245] The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates that Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading. [246] [247]

    Ethnicity

    Main article: Canadians

    Self-reported ethnic origins of Canadians (2011 census) [2]

       European (76.7%)    Asian (14.2%)    Indigenous (4.3%)    Black (2.9%)    Latin American (1.2%)    Multiracial (0.5%)    Other (0.3%)

    According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). [248] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people. [249] Canada's indigenous population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an indigenous identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-indigenous visible minority. [250] In 2006, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent. [251] In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. [252] By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East). [253] The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were China, the Philippines and India. [254] According to Statistics Canada, visible minority groups could account for a third of the Canadian population by 2031. [255]

    Religion

    Main article: Religion in Canada

    Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism. [256] Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. [257] The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state. [258] With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, [259] Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state. [260] [261] [262] [263] The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, [264] but still believe in God. [265] According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7% of the population. Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27% in a 2011 survey. [266] [267] The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). [3] Secularization has been growing since the 1960s. [268] [269] In 2011, 23.9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001. [270] The remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%). [3]

    Languages

    Main article: Languages of Canada Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak English and/or French. [271]    English – 56.9%    English and French (Bilingual) – 16.1%    French – 21.3%    Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km 2 )

    A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 20% of Canadians, respectively. [272] Nearly 6.8 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. [273] Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490). [274] Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. [275]

    The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec. [276] Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. [277] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. [278] There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island. [279]

    Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official. [280] There are 11 indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects. [281] Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term. [282] Several indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories. [283] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory. [284]

    Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous. [285] American Sign Language (ASL) is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools. [286] Due to its historical relation to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language (LSQ) is spoken primarily in Quebec, although there are sizeable Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba. [287]

    Culture

    Main article: Culture of Canada Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men . The raven is a figure common to many of Canada's indigenous mythologies

    Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected. [288] [289] Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. [290] Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments, [291] and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity. [292] [293] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture. [294] However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic—a collection of regional ethnic subcultures. [295]

    Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far-right politics, has wide public support. [296] Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values. [297] [298] Canadians also identify with the country's health care institutions, peacekeeping, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [292] [299]