wings+horns x Canada Goose "Decade Parka" | HYPEBEAST Canada Goose Vancouver

wings+horns x Canada Goose "Decade Parka"

Canadian labels wings+horns and Canada Goose have teamed up to produce a fishtail parka dubbed the

By Cody Horne//Fashion

Canadian labels wings+horns and Canada Goose have teamed up to produce a fishtail parka dubbed the “Decade Parka” as a nod to ten years worth of work from the contemporary Vancouver label, wing+horns. Featuring a military-inspired aesthetic (previewed here), the mid-thigh length jacket is made from waxed cotton combined with a quilted interior down lining and plush removable coyote fur ruff at the hood. Designed and crafted in Canada, this jacket fuses the values of both brands with its quality craftsmanship and attention to detail, which is on full display via standout elements such as the storm flap front closure, herringbone tape at the 2-way zipper and rib-knit cuffs. Limited to only 300 pieces, the wings+horns x Canada Goose Decade Parka releases October 10 and retails for $1200 USD at select stockists worldwide.

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IRBC - Gallery Notes

'That Cackling Conundrum' by Michael O'Keeffe.

canada goose complex
Canada and Cackling Goose Complex (Layout & Design: Michael O`Keeffe).

The diagram above is my artist's impression of the 11 taxa of Canada and Cackling Geese based on various general descriptions and photographs presented on the web and in print. Given the degree of inter and intra-specific variation that is reported to exist and given the still relative lack of solid criteria for identification, this diagram really serves little purpose other than to illustrate the general trend towards larger birds to the south, smaller birds to the north and darker birds to the north west. While such simple parameters may actually serve as useful indicators for North American birders sorting through flocks of geese for that lone vagrant, it is of absolutely no use to us over here in Europe!

In fact the decision of the AOU to split Cackling and Canada Geese represents a major identification challenge (some would say a nightmare) for birders both in North America and in Europe. The main stumbling block for birders and rarities panels alike is that there is little agreement of yet as to the definitive criteria for firmly identifying any of these forms.

Put simply, for European birders the puzzle is split into three.

  1. If one encounters a large Canada Goose it is either from European feral stock or it could be a wild bird from Southern Canada or the United States. There are some criteria proposed for separating wild interior (already conclusively recorded in Ireland) from our own feral birds but given that some feral birds overlap in general appearance with some interior, properly identifying and also verifying the origin of a large Canada Geese remains problematic.
  2. A small goose (White-fronted Goose sized or smaller) is unlikely to come from a local feral population as most Irish and British Canada Geese resemble the nominate canadensis both in size and overall appearance. However some small forms do exist in captivity so the question is not as "cut-and-dried" as "if it is small surely it must be wild?"
  3. Some small "White-cheeked Geese" are likely vagrants to Europe, particularly the eastern-most form of Cackling Goose, hutchinsii (one recently accepted by NIBARC). At the heart of the debate is the form tavernerii which was formerly paired with parvipes - together formerly referred to as "Lesser Canada Goose". The trio of hutchinsii, tavernerii and parvipes is therefore largely where that Cackling conundrum lies. Finding the means to definitively separate parvipes from its Cackling neighbours it seems is the first task to be overcome. hutchinsii appears to be quite a distinctive form and may indeed be readily separable from most parvipes given good views. Many tavernerii on the other hand it seems may be indistinguishable from parvipes. Martin Garner (2008) by delving into the monumental work of Harold Hanson (2006, 2007) has taken the debate down a new avenue with some interesting conclusions for hutchinsii 'that don't quite fit' as well as possible alternative explanations for tavernerii claims from Europe.

While birders across the northern hemisphere are attempting to unravel this grand enigma anyone prepared to take up the challenge of identifying a vagrant Canada or Cackling Goose in Ireland is advised to take copious notes and photographs, concentrating on all aspects of the bird's size, structure, plumage patterns and colouration. Anyone unprepared for patient study may find it difficult getting their record past a rarity assessment panel. Unfortunately, even with the best notes and photos in the world it is likely some if not many birds will remain unassigned for some time to come.

From here I recommend you visit David Sibley's website. There are also lots of other interesting links provided in the list of references and useful reading below.

References & Useful Reading

Abraham, K. 2005. Cackling Goose, not new to Ontario [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Banks, R. C., Cicero, C., Dunn, J.L., Kratter, A.W., Rasmussen, P.C., Remsen, J.V., Rising, J.D. & Stotz, D.F. 2004. Forty-fifth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 121: 985-995.

Batty, C. & Lowe, T. 2001. Vagrant Canada Geese in Britain and Ireland. Birding World 14(2): 57-61.

Deviche, P. & Moore, M. 2005. Arizona White-cheeked Geese: The Canada vs. Cackling Goose Challenge [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Garner, M. & Friends. 2008. Frontiers in Birding. Bird Guides Ltd., Sheffield.

Hanson, H.C. 2006. The White-cheeked Geese: Taxonomy, Ecophysiographic Relationships, Biogeography, and Evolutionary Considerations. Vol 1 Eastern Taxa. Avaar Books, California USA.

Hanson, H.C. 2007. The White-cheeked Geese: Taxonomy, Ecophysiographic Relationships, Biogeography, and Evolutionary Considerations. Vol 2 Western Taxa. Avaar Books, California USA.

Hertzel, P., Silcock, W.R. & Dinsmore S.J. 2005. Identification of Canada and Cackling Geese in Iowa [online]. Available from: [Accessed February 2012].

Krueger, H. 2005. Cackling Goose -- Canada Goose Subspecies Identification Indicators Introduction [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

MacDonald, T. Canada Goose Subspecies [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Roberson, D. 2009. Identification of Canada and Cackling Goose in Monterey [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Sibley, D.A. 2000. National Audubon Society The Sibley Guide to Birds. Chanticleer Press, NY.

Sibley, D.A. 2004. Identification of Canada and Cackling Goose [online]. Available from: [Accessed February 2012].

Stackhouse, M. 2004. The New Goose [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Steele, J. & Scott, M. 1997. Identification (Canadian club). Birdwatch 55: 34-38.

Wilson, A. 2003. Identification and Range of Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Subspecies [online]. Available from: [Accessed September 2009].

Michael O'Keeffe

Listowel, Kerry

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List of shopping malls in Canada

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This article is a list of notable shopping malls in Canada by province.

Canada's first indoor mall was the Lister Block, originally opened in 1852, in Hamilton, Ontario.[1] The Lister Block was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1924.[2] In 2011 the building was completely rebuilt.[3]

Opened in 1949, the first shopping mall in Canada is the Norgate shopping centre in Saint-Laurent, Montreal, Quebec, which is a strip mall. The first enclosed shopping mall is the Park Royal Shopping Centre in West Vancouver, British Columbia, which opened a year later, in 1950. As of May 2017, there are 3,742 enclosed and strip malls in Canada larger than 40,000 square feet.[4]


  • 1 Alberta
    • 1.1 Calgary
    • 1.2 Edmonton
    • 1.3 Hinton
    • 1.4 Lethbridge
    • 1.5 Medicine Hat
    • 1.6 Red Deer
    • 1.7 St. Albert
    • 1.8 Sherwood Park
  • 2 British Columbia
    • 2.1 Metro Vancouver
    • 2.2 Vancouver Island
    • 2.3 Fraser Valley
    • 2.4 British Columbia Interior
  • 3 Manitoba
  • 4 New Brunswick
  • 5 Newfoundland and Labrador
  • 6 Nova Scotia
  • 7 Ontario
    • 7.1 Central Ontario
    • 7.2 Eastern Ontario (except Ottawa)
    • 7.3 Golden Horseshoe (except Toronto)
    • 7.4 Northern Ontario
    • 7.5 Ottawa
    • 7.6 Southwestern Ontario
    • 7.7 Toronto
  • 8 Prince Edward Island
  • 9 Quebec
    • 9.1 Gatineau area
    • 9.2 Montreal
    • 9.3 Greater Montreal (excluding Montreal)
    • 9.4 Quebec City area
    • 9.5 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Mauricie
    • 9.6 Sherbrooke area and Central Quebec
  • 10 Saskatchewan
  • 11 Northwest Territories
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
    • 13.1 Notes



  • Bankers Hall
  • Chinook Centre
  • The CORE Shopping Centre
  • CrossIron Mills
  • Deerfoot City
  • Market Mall
  • Marlborough Mall
  • North Hill Centre
  • Northland Village Mall
  • Scotia Centre
  • Southcentre Mall
  • Sunridge Mall
  • Westbrook Mall


  • Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre
  • Capilano Mall
  • Commerce Place
  • Edmonton City Centre
  • Kingsway Mall
  • Londonderry Mall
  • Manulife Place
  • Mill Woods Town Centre
  • North Town Centre
  • Northgate Centre
  • Southgate Centre
  • West Edmonton Mall[a]
  • Westmount Centre


  • Parks West Mall


  • Lethbridge Centre
  • Park Place Mall

Medicine Hat[edit]

  • Medicine Hat Mall

Red Deer[edit]

  • Bower Place

St. Albert[edit]

  • St. Albert Centre

Sherwood Park[edit]

  • Sherwood Park Mall

British Columbia[edit]

Metro Vancouver[edit]

  • Burnaby
    • Brentwood Town Centre
    • Crystal Mall
    • Lougheed Town Centre
    • Metropolis at Metrotown - second largest mall in Canada
    • Station Square
  • City of North Vancouver
    • Capilano Mall
    • Lonsdale Quay
  • Coquitlam
    • Coquitlam Centre
  • Delta
    • Tsawwassen Mills
  • District of North Vancouver
    • Edgemont Village
  • Langley Township
    • Willowbrook Shopping Centre
  • Richmond
    • Aberdeen Centre
    • Lansdowne Centre
    • Parker Place
    • Richmond Centre
  • Surrey
    • Central City Shopping Centre
    • Guildford Town Centre
  • South Surrey/White Rock
    • Semiahmoo Shopping Centre
  • West Vancouver
    • Park Royal Shopping Centre - first covered shopping mall in Canada
  • Vancouver
    • Bentall Centre
    • City Square Mall
    • Harbour Centre
    • Oakridge Centre
    • Pacific Centre
    • Royal Centre
    • Sinclair Centre

Vancouver Island[edit]

  • Nanaimo
    • Port Place Shopping Centre
    • Woodgrove Centre
  • Port Alberni
    • Alberni Mall
    • Pacific Rim Shopping Centre
  • Victoria/Greater Victoria
    • Bay Centre
    • Hillside Shopping Centre
    • Market Square
    • Mayfair Shopping Centre
    • Tillicum Centre
    • Westshore Town Centre, formerly Can West Mall

Fraser Valley[edit]

  • Abbotsford
    • Sevenoaks Shopping Centre

British Columbia Interior[edit]

  • Kelowna
    • Orchard Park Shopping Centre
  • Penticton
    • Cherry Lane Shopping Centre
  • Vernon
    • Village Green Mall


  • Winnipeg
    • Cityplace
    • Garden City Shopping Centre
    • Grant Park Shopping Centre
    • Kildonan Place
    • Outlet Collection Winnipeg[5]
    • Polo Park Shopping Centre - largest mall between Toronto and Edmonton
    • Portage Place
    • St. Vital Centre
    • Shops of Winnipeg Square
  • Brandon
    • Brandon Shoppers Mall

New Brunswick[edit]

  • Dieppe
    • Champlain Place
  • Moncton
    • Trinity Power Centre
  • Saint John
    • McAllister Place

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit]

  • Labrador City
    • Labrador Mall
  • St. John's
    • Avalon Mall (Kenmount Road at Thorburn)
    • Village Shopping Centre (Columbus Drive at Topsail Road)

Nova Scotia[edit]

  • Halifax region:
    • Bedford
      • Sunnyside Mall
    • Dartmouth
      • Dartmouth Crossing
      • Mic Mac Mall
    • Halifax
      • Halifax Shopping Centre
      • Maritime Mall - Maritime Centre
      • Park Lane Mall
      • Scotia Square
  • Sydney
    • Mayflower Mall


Central Ontario[edit]

  • Barrie
    • Georgian Mall

Eastern Ontario (except Ottawa)[edit]

  • Cornwall
    • Le Village
  • Kingston
    • Cataraqui Town Centre

Golden Horseshoe (except Toronto)[edit]

  • Brampton
    • Bramalea City Centre
    • Shoppers World Brampton
  • Burlington
    • Burlington Mall
    • Mapleview Centre
  • Hamilton
    • Centre Mall
    • Eastgate Square
    • Jackson Square
    • Lime Ridge Mall
  • Markham
    • Market Village
    • Markville Shopping Centre
    • Pacific Mall
  • Mississauga
    • Dixie Outlet Mall
    • Erin Mills Town Centre
    • Square One Shopping Centre
  • Newmarket
    • Upper Canada Mall
  • Oakville
    • Oakville Place
  • Oshawa
    • Five Points Mall
    • Oshawa Centre
  • Pickering
    • Pickering Town Centre
  • Richmond Hill
    • Hillcrest Mall
  • St. Catharines
    • The Pen Centre
  • Vaughan
    • The Promenade Shopping Centre
    • Vaughan Mills
  • Welland
    • Seaway Mall

Northern Ontario[edit]

  • Northeastern Ontario
    • Sault Ste. Marie
      • Station Mall
    • Sudbury
      • New Sudbury Centre
    • Temiskaming Shores
      • Timiskaming Square
    • Timmins
      • Timmins Square
  • Northwestern Ontario
    • Thunder Bay
      • Intercity Shopping Centre


  • Bayshore Shopping Centre
  • Billings Bridge Plaza
  • Carlingwood Mall
  • Elmvale Acres Shopping Centre
  • Freiman Mall
  • Hazeldean Mall
  • Herongate Mall
  • Merivale Mall
  • Place d'Orléans
  • Rideau Centre
  • St. Laurent Shopping Centre

Southwestern Ontario[edit]

  • Cambridge
    • Cambridge Centre
  • Guelph
    • Stone Road Mall
  • Kitchener
    • Fairview Park Mall
  • London
    • Masonville Place
    • Westmount Mall
    • White Oaks Mall
  • Niagara Falls
    • Outlet Collection at Niagara
  • Sarnia
    • Lambton Mall
  • Waterloo
    • Conestoga Mall
  • Windsor
    • Devonshire Mall


  • Bayview Village Shopping Centre
  • Centerpoint Mall
  • Dufferin Mall
  • Fairview Mall
  • Golden Mile Plaza
  • Scarborough Town Centre
  • Sherway Gardens
  • Shoppers World Danforth
  • Shops at Don Mills
  • Toronto Eaton Centre
  • Woodbine Centre
  • Yorkdale Shopping Centre
  • Yorkville Village

Prince Edward Island[edit]


Gatineau area[edit]

  • Les Promenades de l'Outaouais
  • Les Galeries de Hull


  • 1000 de la Gauchetière
  • Carrefour Angrignon (LaSalle)
  • Centre Eaton (Ville-Marie, Downtown)
  • Complexe Desjardins
  • Complexe Les Ailes
  • Galeries d'Anjou (Anjou)
  • Fairview Pointe-Claire (Pointe-Claire)
  • Norgate shopping centre (Saint-Laurent) - first mall in Canada
  • Place Montréal Trust (Montréal, Quebec)
  • Place Versailles (Montreal, Quebec)
  • Place Vertu (Saint-Laurent, Quebec)
  • Promenades Cathédrale (Montreal, Quebec)

Greater Montreal (excluding Montreal)[edit]

  • Laval
    • Carrefour Laval
    • Centre Laval
  • Brossard
    • Champlain Mall
    • Place Portobello
    • Quartier DIX30
  • Longueuil
    • Centre Jacques-Cartier
    • Place Longueuil
  • Pointe-Claire
    • Fairview Pointe-Claire
  • Rosemere, Quebec
    • Place Rosemère
  • Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville
    • Promenades Saint-Bruno
  • Saint-Jérôme
    • Carrefour du Nord
  • Sorel-Tracy
    • Les Promenades de Sorel

Quebec City area[edit]

  • Quebec City
    • Galeries de la Capitale
    • Laurier Québec
    • Fleur de Lys centre commercial
    • Place Sainte-Foy
  • Lévis
    • Les Galeries Chagnon
  • Saint-Georges
    • Carrefour Saint-Georges

Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Mauricie[edit]

  • Chicoutimi
    • Place du Royaume

Sherbrooke area and Central Quebec[edit]

  • Carrefour de l'Estrie


  • Saskatoon
    • The Centre or Centre at Circle & 8th Mall
    • Confederation Mall
    • The Mall at Lawson Heights
    • Market Mall
    • Midtown Plaza
    • Preston Crossing

Northwest Territories[edit]

  • Centre Square Mall, Yellowknife

See also[edit]

  • List of largest enclosed shopping malls in Canada
  • List of shopping malls in the United States


  1. ^ "Lister's Legacy". The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved 2016-09-24. 
  2. ^ "1852: Lister Chambers opens at Hamilton's James and King William streets". The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved 2016-09-24. 
  3. ^ Bell, Ashleigh. "Bringing Back the Block – The Story of Hamilton's Iconic Lister Building". Tourism Hamilton. Retrieved 2016-09-24. 
  4. ^ Kopun, Francine (6 May 2017). "How neighbourhood malls are struggling to survive". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 6 May 2017. 
  5. ^


  1. ^ Largest Mall in the world from 1981-2004. Currently 18th largest in the world and largest in North America
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